A General Question about Former Chattanooga City Seal

Friday, October 26, 2012 - by Harmon Jolley
City seal shown on 1916 letterhead of Mayor Jesse M. Littleton
City seal shown on 1916 letterhead of Mayor Jesse M. Littleton

Chattanooga has a long association with trains.  The terrain dictated that trains would have to pass through the city, which led to Chattanooga’s growth.  The rail infrastructure encouraged local manufacturing.  Many passengers from distant places were given many chances to see what Chattanooga had to offer.  Some came back to stay.

By 1975, however, Chattanoogans and their elected leaders may have wanted a make-over for the city’s image.

  In an age of freeways, jets and spaceships, trains were associated with bygone times. 

Passenger train service had been discontinued locally.  Though there had been efforts to preserve it as a history museum and open-air market, Union Station and its train shed had been demolished.  A railroad relocation program had resulted in fewer trains crossing busy streets.

Then, there was the loss of that historic Civil War locomotive, the General, which had been so disappointing to Chattanoogans.  The General had been displayed at Union Station since 1901, and became deeply associated with the city. 

However, in the 1960’s, the L&N Railroad announced that the General would be given to Georgia.  The state had owned interests in railroads and property in Chattanooga since before the Civil War. 

Mayor Ralph Kelley and other leaders contested the action of L&N, both by taking possession of the General and fighting its removal in court.  The case ultimately was heard by the United States Supreme Court, which in November, 1971 upheld a lower court ruling that gave the General to Georgia. 

I had the opportunity to hear Judge Ralph Kelley address the Chattanooga Area Historical Association about the General a few years before his passing in 2004.  It was insightful to hear of his tense conversation with Governor Lester Maddox after the General had been intercepted by “Kelley’s Raiders.”  Gov. Maddox was irate that news media were arriving in Kennesaw for the unveiling, yet the locomotive wouldn’t be there.

Judge Kelley recalled the difficult question that confronted him after learning of L&N’s plans.  He pondered what he was going to do with boxes and boxes of official letterhead, business cards, coffee mugs, tie clasps, and other items that depicted the General.

At the time, the city’s official government seal was based on that famous locomotive.  Local drivers saw the General each day, since the city sticker on the windshield contained the city seal.  Losing the locomotive meant that the city seal featured an obsolete image.

In the summer of 1974, Mayor Robert Kirk Walker suggested a public contest to design a new corporate seal.  On February 11, 1975, the Chattanooga News-Free Press reported that George Little, a prolific illustrator of Chattanooga’s scenery, won the first-place prize of $500.  The new city seal featured a view of the city from Point Park.

After researching the previous city seal, however, I am uncertain that the General was actually the locomotive that the artist had in mind.

The Public Library has a clipping on files from the “Revised Ordinances and Code of the City of Chattanooga.”  The document was printed in 1892 by the Times Printing Company.  Note that the year is prior to 1901, when the General was first displayed at Union Station.

Section 485 of Chapter XLII, Sundry Regulations, said, “A seal is hereby adopted as the official seal of the city of Chattanooga – the said seal being circular, being in circular form around the outer portion of the words, “Corporation of the City of Chattanooga,” and in the center the figure of a locomotive engine, with pilot at the right.  And it shall be unlawful for any person to use another seal as the corporate seal of the city of Chattanooga.”

Note that the General is not named in that section.

It is possible that there was a later ordinance to amend this ordinance that specifically described the locomotive as being the General.  I grew up hearing that it was the General on the city sticker that was in front of me when I rode in the front seat of my parents’ cars. 

If you have information on the former city seal and whether the locomotive was ever officially named as being the General, please send me an e-mail at jolleyh@bellsouth.net.

By the way, Section 486 made it a misdemeanor to keep or maintain any jackass or stallion within the corporate limits.  Section 487 deemed it a nuisance to let dogs run at large between June 1 and October 1.

Current city seal of Chattanooga was designed by George Little, and shows a view of the city from Point Park on Lookout Mountain.
Current city seal of Chattanooga was designed by George Little, and shows a view of the city from Point Park on Lookout Mountain.

Chester Martin Remembers Chattanooga's Enriched Society

With that title I am referring directly to the Jewish population of our city. This population had apparently begun its good work long before my time. My father was born in a very rural community in1884 and his family remembered "Leboits" - a peddler, who spoke with a strong "old world" accent. "Leboits" traveled to the most rural parts of North Georgia well before 1900, reaching ... (click for more)

Chester Martin Remembers Dr. Karel Hujer

When Dr. Karel Hujer arrived in Chattanooga shortly after WWII he was easily the most highly educated member of the University of Chattanooga faculty. His degree was "Doctor of Science", (D.Sc.) from Prague's ancient Charles University in Czechoslovakia. He received further education in Ancient Astronomy in many parts of the world, including Paris, London, Egypt, Mexico, and Peru. ... (click for more)

City Council To Consider Policy That Job Applicants Would Not Have To Reveal Criminal Records

The City Council on Tuesday night will consider a policy that city job applicants would not have to reveal their criminal past. Councilman Yusuf Hakeem cited problems those with felony records have in securing employment. The policy would go into effect by the first of the year. The resolution says: WHEREAS, the City of Chattanooga (the "City") is committed ... (click for more)

City Considering Measure That Would Require City Employees To Be Tennessee Residents

The City Council is considering an ordinance that would require city employees to be residents of the state of Tennessee. The city has employees who live in North Georgia and North Alabama and that is allowed.  If the ordinance is approved by the City Council, it still would need to be okayed by a majority of city voters in an election. The measure will be considered ... (click for more)

An Extra Helping Of Gratitude

After being thankful for the grace of God, my family and good health, this year I have an extra helping of gratitude to live in a special place called Chattanooga.   We endured the trauma of terrorism on July 16 and emerged more united and stronger than ever before.  We claim our heritage and celebrate our diversity like no other city in America.  We honor our ... (click for more)

Roy Exum: We Can’t ‘Ban The Box’

I know a man who has over 20 former convicts from federal prisons who either work for him or who have retired with their dignity, pride, and self-worth restored. Better yet, I know some of them, men who have done “hard time” in prisons so wretched none of us would dare to go. So on the surface I applaud City Councilman Yusef Hakeem for seeing ways to get formerly incarcerated men ... (click for more)